CONCRETE PIPE Bends Special sections can be used for extremely short radius curves which cannot be negotiated with either deflected straight pipe or with conventional radius pipe. Bends, or elbows can be manufactured to meet any required deflection angle and some manufacturers produce standard bends which provide given angular deflection per section. Sharper curves can be handled by using special short lengths of radius pipe rather than standard lengths. These may be computed in accordance with the methods discussed for radius pipe. Certain types of manufacturing processes permit the use of a drop joint on both ends of the pipe, which effectively doubles the deflection. All bends manufactured at Lafarge are custom products, built to meet the specific needs of your project. As a general rule, a single bend is limited to 45 degrees, with additional bend pieces recommended for larger alignment changes. Bends are typically manufactured using a single pipe section that has been scarred, split, and reconnected with a cold joint to form the angle necessary. It is important to note, however, that flexibility exists within the manufacturing process to accommodate a project’s specific needs. PAGE 40 LAFARGE PIPE eMANUAL