introduCtion TABLE OF CONTENTS ConCrete pipe Background .................................................................................................... Development of the Concrete Products Industry in Western Canada ................. What is Concrete Pipe?.................................................................................... Applications .................................................................................................... Features of Concrete Pipe ............................................................................... Concrete Pipe Standards ................................................................................. Standard Specifications ................................................................................... Manufacturing Process ................................................................................... Production Materials ....................................................................................... Reinforcement Fabrication .............................................................................. Offbearing and Curing ..................................................................................... Testing and Quality Control .............................................................................. Plant Prequalification Program ........................................................................ Concrete Pipe eManual Design........................................................................ Design Methods .............................................................................................. Design Software .............................................................................................. Concrete Pipe Design and Specification........................................................... Determination of Loads ................................................................................... Standard Installation Beddings ........................................................................ Pipe Class Estimation ...................................................................................... Curved Alignment ........................................................................................... Bends ............................................................................................................. Jacking and Tunnel Pipe ................................................................................. Durability Considerations ................................................................................. Principle Aggressive Factors ............................................................................ Freeze-Thaw and Weathering .......................................................................... Velocity and Abrasion ...................................................................................... Buoyancy........................................................................................................ Hydrokinetics (Infiltration and Exfiltration)........................................................ Joints .............................................................................................................. Concrete Pipe Handling and Installation .......................................................... Significance of Cracking .................................................................................. Autogenous Healing ........................................................................................ What is Honeycombing? .................................................................................. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 13 18 19 20 23 25 26 28 29 30 36 37 38 40 41 45 46 54 54 55 56 57 60 63 64 65 stormwater treatment teChnologies box seCtions manhole and CatCh basin material